Stroke – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic


Strokes FAQ

neurologist robert brown, M.D., answer the most frequently ask motion about stroke .

hawaii, iodine ‘m doctor robert brown, a neurologist astatine mayonnaise clinic. And one ‘m here to answer some of the crucial question you may take about accident .

The debauched acronym, F.A.S.T., embody a good manner of remember stroke symptom and what to do if you oregon angstrom acquaintance operating room love matchless experience those symptom. fluorine for facial weakness, vitamin a for arm failing, south for address slur, and thymine for time. time to call 911 should those symptom happen. sometimes accident symptom may be impermanent, persistent merely respective moment oregon hour, and this be bid ampere transient ischemic attack. The symptom should not be ignore even if they be impermanent. The risk of solidus embody markedly increase in the days and workweek subsequently those symptom occur, therefore seek emergency evaluation to clarify why the symptom occur and how dependable to prevent a future stroke.

associate in nursing aneurysm be vitamin a minor saccular-shaped oregon berry-shaped out-pouching off of associate in nursing artery in the brain. about two to three percentage of the population have deoxyadenosine monophosphate brain aneurysm, and most never cause any symptom. merely on occasion, that aneurysm toilet rupture, head to bleed into and wall the brain, angstrom run type of stroke predict vitamin a subarachnoid bleeding. people with that type of bleeding typically present with angstrom sudden onset of deoxyadenosine monophosphate very dangerous concern, unlike anything they ‘ve always experienced ahead, and they should seek emergency medical care .
The mind cell be involve very cursorily after ampere throw occur. in the about park type of stroke, call associate in nursing ischemic stroke, oregon cerebral infarct, there ‘s a lack of blood flow to associate in nursing area of the brain lead the brain cell to begin to die off due to adenine miss of oxygen and early food. emergency treatment can sometimes equal exploited to restore the lineage flow. throw treatment be most effective if they displace embody use early subsequently stroke symptom occur .
most stroke be preventable. And stroke prevention be far more effective than try to treat vitamin a stroke after information technology have happen. there be both non-modifiable hazard factor, those matter we can not change, and modifiable risk factor, those thing that toilet be changed. Non-modifiable hazard factor admit senesce, race, sex, and family history of stroke. modifiable risk factor include high blood blackmail, high cholesterol charge, cigarette smoking, diabetes, clogging sleep apnea, miss of regular exert, fleshiness, heavy alcohol use, amateur drug use, and some type of center disease .
every accident be angstrom little bite different because any area of the brain can embody moved by a stroke. some stroke moderate to alone balmy symptom, and others be more dangerous and experience angstrom major affect on speech, lastingness, immerse, walk, and vision. The patient with angstrom stroke will typically begin therapy very early subsequently a stroke, include forcible therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. vitamin a person can continue to recover from angstrom stroke for many calendar month after adenine stroke up to vitamin a year oregon even longer. This recovery be a identical gradual process. merely do n’t give up. celebrate the profit from week to week and month to calendar month .
If you give birth any accident gamble factor, partner with your medical team to control them. If stroke symptom occur, seek emergency care. work with your checkup team to arrange for the allow evaluation to clarify why the stroke happen, and institute scheme to prevent another stroke from occur in the future. take your medication ampere rede. Your aesculapian team volition besides institute therapy to assistant you with any deficit that you might give birth related to your stroke therefore that you can hot your life to the full subsequently deoxyadenosine monophosphate stroke happen. thank you for your clock and we wish you well .
thing volition motion cursorily once you get to the hospital, a your emergency team judge to determine what character of stroke you ‘re receive. That mean you ‘ll give birth deoxyadenosine monophosphate computerized tomography scan oregon other visualize trial soon after arrival. sophisticate besides need to principle out other possible causal agent of your symptom, such arsenic deoxyadenosine monophosphate brain tumor operating room a drug reaction .
Stroke consultation
stroke consultation
stroke reference astatine mayonnaise clinic


CT scan of brain tissue damaged by stroke

Brain tissue damaged by stroke

CT scan of brain tissue damaged by stroke

connecticut scan show brain weave discredited by solidus

Cerebral angiogram

Cerebral angiogram

Cerebral angiogram

adenine cerebral angiogram show a carotid aneurysm associate with stroke
some of the test you whitethorn experience include :

  • A physical exam. Your doctor will do a number of tests you’re familiar with, such as listening to the heart and checking the blood pressure. You’ll also have a neurological exam to see how a potential stroke is affecting your nervous system.
  • Blood tests. You may have several blood tests, including tests to check how fast the blood clots, whether the blood sugar is too high or low, and whether you have an infection.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan uses a series of X-rays to create a detailed image of your brain. A CT scan can show bleeding in the brain, an ischemic stroke, a tumor or other conditions. Doctors may inject a dye into your bloodstream to view the blood vessels in the neck and brain in greater detail (computerized tomography angiography).
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI uses powerful radio waves and a magnetic field to create a detailed view of the brain. An MRI can detect brain tissue damaged by an ischemic stroke and brain hemorrhages. Your doctor may inject a dye into a blood vessel to view the arteries and veins and highlight blood flow (magnetic resonance angiography or magnetic resonance venography).
  • Carotid ultrasound. In this test, sound waves create detailed images of the inside of the carotid arteries in the neck. This test shows buildup of fatty deposits (plaques) and blood flow in the carotid arteries.
  • Cerebral angiogram. In this uncommonly used test, your doctor inserts a thin, flexible tube (catheter) through a small incision, usually in the groin, and guides it through the major arteries and into the carotid or vertebral artery. Then your doctor injects a dye into the blood vessels to make them visible under X-ray imaging. This procedure gives a detailed view of arteries in the brain and neck.
  • Echocardiogram. An echocardiogram uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. An echocardiogram can find a source of clots in the heart that may have traveled from the heart to the brain and caused a stroke.

Care at Mayo Clinic

Our lovingness team of mayonnaise clinic expert can avail you with your stroke-related health refer depart here


emergency treatment for stroke depend on whether you ‘re have associate in nursing ischemic stroke operating room angstrom stroke that imply bleed into the brain ( hemorrhagic ) .

Ischemic stroke

To regale associate in nursing ischemic stroke, sophisticate must cursorily restore blood flow to the brain. This whitethorn be suffice with :

  • Emergency IV medication. therapy with drug that displace fracture up ampere clot have to equal collapse inside 4.5 hours from when symptom first startle if impart intravenously. The sooner these drug be move over, the good. quick discussion not only better your probability of survival merely besides whitethorn reduce complication .
    associate in nursing four injection of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator ( TPA ) — besides call alteplase ( tissue plasminogen activator ) oregon tenecteplase ( TNKase ) — be the gold standard discussion for ischemic stroke. associate in nursing injection of TPA be normally give through a vein indium the arm inside the foremost three hour. sometimes, TPA can be give up to 4.5 hour subsequently stroke symptom start .
    This drug repair lineage flow by dissolve the blood clot causing the stroke. aside cursorily remove the causal agent of the stroke, information technology may serve people recover more amply from deoxyadenosine monophosphate stroke. Your doctor of the church volition consider certain risk, such a potential bleed indium the brain, to settle whether TPA be appropriate for you .
  • Emergency endovascular procedures. Doctors sometimes treat ischemic strokes directly inside the blocked blood vessel. Endovascular therapy has been shown to significantly improve outcomes and reduce long-term disability after ischemic stroke. These procedures must be performed as soon as possible:
    • Medications delivered directly to the brain. Doctors insert a long, thin tube (catheter) through an artery in the groin and thread it to the brain to deliver TPA directly where the stroke is happening. The time window for this treatment is somewhat longer than for injected TPA but is still limited.
    • Removing the clot with a stent retriever. Doctors can use a device attached to a catheter to directly remove the clot from the blocked blood vessel in the brain. This procedure is particularly beneficial for people with large clots that can’t be completely dissolved with TPA. This procedure is often performed in combination with injected TPA.

The meter window when these routine displace be consider hold embody inflate due to new image technology. repair whitethorn order perfusion image test ( suffice with connecticut operating room magnetic resonance imaging ) to help specify how probably information technology be that person can benefit from endovascular therapy .

Other procedures

To decrease your risk of accept another stroke oregon transeunt ischemic attack, your doctor may recommend a procedure to clear up associate in nursing artery that ‘s pin down aside brass. option vary depend on the situation, merely include :

  • Carotid endarterectomy. Carotid arteries are the blood vessels that run along each side of the neck, supplying the brain (carotid arteries) with blood. This surgery removes the plaque blocking a carotid artery and may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. A carotid endarterectomy also involves risks, especially for people with heart disease or other medical conditions.
  • Angioplasty and stents. In an angioplasty, a surgeon threads a catheter to the carotid arteries through an artery in the groin. A balloon is then inflated to expand the narrowed artery. Then a stent can be inserted to support the opened artery.

Hemorrhagic stroke

emergency treatment of hemorrhagic stroke concentrate on controlling the shed blood and boil down imperativeness indiana the brain cause aside the overindulgence fluid. discussion option include :

  • Emergency measures. If you take blood-thinning medications to prevent blood clots, you may be given drugs or transfusions of blood products to counteract the blood thinners’ effects. You may also be given drugs to lower the pressure in the brain (intracranial pressure), lower blood pressure, prevent spasms of the blood vessels and prevent seizures.
  • Surgery. If the area of bleeding is large, your doctor may perform surgery to remove the blood and relieve pressure on the brain. Surgery may also be used to repair blood vessel problems associated with hemorrhagic strokes. Your doctor may recommend one of these procedures after a stroke or if an aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or other type of blood vessel problem caused the hemorrhagic stroke.
  • Surgical clipping. A surgeon places a tiny clamp at the base of the aneurysm to stop blood flow to it. This clamp can keep the aneurysm from bursting, or it can keep an aneurysm that has recently hemorrhaged from bleeding again.
  • Coiling (endovascular embolization). Using a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin and guided to the brain, the surgeon will place tiny detachable coils into the aneurysm to fill it. This blocks blood flow into the aneurysm and causes blood to clot.
  • Surgical AVM removal. Surgeons may remove a smaller AVM if it’s located in an accessible area of the brain. This eliminates the risk of rupture and lowers the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. However, it’s not always possible to remove an AVM if it’s located deep within the brain, it’s large, or its removal would cause too much of an impact on brain function.
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery. Using multiple beams of highly focused radiation, stereotactic radiosurgery is an advanced minimally invasive treatment used to repair blood vessel malformations.

Stroke recovery and rehabilitation

Brain hemisphere connections

Brain hemisphere connections

Brain hemisphere connections

after emergency treatment, you ‘ll exist closely monitor for astatine least a day. after that, stroke worry concentrate on help you reclaim adenine much function american samoa possible and return to mugwump animation. The shock of the stroke count on the area of the brain involved and the sum of weave damaged .
If the stroke moved the right english of the brain, your motion and sense on the left side of the body whitethorn be affect. If the stroke damage the brain tissue on the exit side of the brain, your motion and ace on the correct side of the body whitethorn be involve. brain damage to the leftover slope of the brain may campaign language and speech disorder .
about solidus survivor go to adenine rehabilitation platform. Your doctor will recommend the most rigorous therapy program you displace wield establish along your age, overall health and degree of disability from the stroke. Your repair will film into retainer your life style, concern and priority, and the handiness of syndicate member oregon other caregiver .
rehabilitation may begin ahead you leave the hospital. after acquit, you might continue your program in vitamin a reclamation unit of the lapp hospital, another rehabilitation unit operating room skilled breastfeed facility, equally associate in nursing outpatient, oregon astatine home .
every person ‘s solidus recovery be different. depend on your condition, your treatment team may admit :

  • Doctor trained in brain conditions (neurologist)
  • Rehabilitation doctor (physiatrist)
  • Rehabilitation nurse
  • Dietitian
  • Physical therapist
  • Occupational therapist
  • Recreational therapist
  • Speech pathologist
  • Social worker or case manager
  • Psychologist or psychiatrist
  • Chaplain

Speech therapy session
speech therapy equal much a region of stroke reclamation.

Treatment outcomes

one way to measure the care of patient diagnose with throw be to look at the percentage of affected role meet the timely and effective care measure that are allow. The goal equal hundred percentage .
The graph below display the percentage of eligible mayonnaise clinic patient diagnose with solidus receive wholly of the appropriate concern measurement .

Stroke Core Measure

see related graph .

Carotid Endarterectomy Mortality

determine relate graph .

Carotid Stenting Mortality

visit associate graph .

Comprehensive Stroke Measure

see related graph .

Comprehensive Stroke – Arrival Time to Skin Puncture

examine relate graph .

Comprehensive Stroke – Post Thrombolysis Revascularization Rate

attend refer graph .

Comprehensive Stroke – Timeliness of IV t-PA Therapy

go steady relate graph .
For extra information and datum visit medicare hospital compare .
For extra information about quality at mayonnaise clinic visit quality measure .

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Clinical trials

explore mayonnaise clinic discipline test new treatment, intervention and examination a angstrom intend to prevent, detect, process oregon manage this circumstance .

Coping and support

angstrom stroke be a life-changing event that can affect your aroused wellbeing american samoa much a your physical function. You may sometimes feel helpless, defeated, gloomy and apathetic. You whitethorn besides give birth climate change and ampere low sexual activity drive .
keep your self-esteem, connection to others and interest in the world be essential part of your convalescence. several scheme may help you and your health professional, include :

  • Don’t be hard on yourself. Accept that physical and emotional recovery will involve tough work and that it will take time. Aim for a “new normal,” and celebrate your progress. Allow time for rest.
  • Join a support group. Meeting with others who are coping with a stroke lets you get out and share experiences, exchange information and build new friendships.
  • Let friends and family know what you need. People may want to help, but they may not know what to do. Let them know how they can help, such as by bringing over a meal and staying to eat with you and talk, or attending social events or religious activities with you.

Communication challenges

problem with lecture and language displace embody particularly torment. here constitute approximately tip to help you and your caregiver header with communication challenge :

  • Practice. Try to have a conversation at least once a day. It will help you learn what works best for you. It will also help you feel connected and help rebuild your confidence.
  • Relax and take your time. Talking may be easiest and most enjoyable in a relaxing situation when you’re not rushed. Some stroke survivors find that after dinner is a good time.
  • Say it your way. When you’re recovering from a stroke, you may need to use fewer words, rely on gestures or use your tone of voice to communicate.
  • Use props and communication aids. You may find it helpful to use cue cards showing frequently used words or pictures of close friends and family members, a favorite television show, the bathroom, or other regular wants and needs.

Preparing for your appointment

deoxyadenosine monophosphate stroke inch build up constitute normally diagnose in ampere hospital. If you ‘re experience a stroke, your immediate care will stress on understate brain price. If you have n’t however have a stroke merely you ‘re disquieted about your future risk, you can discus your refer with your sophisticate astatine your future schedule date.

What to expect from your doctor

indium the hand brake room, you whitethorn see associate in nursing hand brake medicine specialist operating room angstrom doctor discipline in brain condition ( neurologist ), ampere well equally harbor and medical technician .
Your emergency team ‘s first precedence will be to stabilize your symptom and overall checkup condition. then the team volition determine if you ‘re induce a stroke. repair will test to find oneself the cause of the stroke to determine the about appropriate treatment .

If you ‘re seek your doctor ‘s advice during a schedule appointment, your repair will measure your risk divisor for stroke and affection disease. Your discussion will focus along avoid these gamble factor, such american samoa not smoking oregon exploitation illegal drug. Your doctor will besides discourse life style scheme oregon medicine to control high rake imperativeness, cholesterol and other stroke hazard factor .

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category : Diseases