Diabetes insipidus – Causes

Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems with a chemical called vasopressin (AVP), which is also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). AVP be produce by the hypothalamus and store in the pituitary gland until needed. The hypothalamus exist associate in nursing area of the brain that control condition mood and appetite .

The pituitary gland constitute locate below your brain, behind the bridge of your nose.

AVP regulate the level of water inch your body by control the sum of urine your kidney produce. When the level of water system inch your body decrease, your pituitary gland liberation AVP to conserve urine and stop the production of urine. in diabetes insipidus, AVP fail to by rights determine your body ‘s level of water, and allow excessively much urine to equal produce and travel by from your torso. there be two main type of diabetes insipidus :

  • cranial diabetes insipidus – where the body does not produce enough AVP, so excessive amounts of water are lost in large amounts of urine
  • nephrogenic diabetes insipidus – where AVP is produced at the right levels, but, for a variety of reasons, the kidneys do not respond to it in the normal way

Cranial diabetes insipidus

The three most common induce of cranial diabetes insipidus be :

  • a brain tumour that damages the hypothalamus or pituitary gland
  • a severe head injury that damages the hypothalamus or pituitary gland
  • complications that occur during brain or pituitary surgery

no cause toilet equal found for about vitamin a third of wholly case of cranial diabetes insipidus. These case, know deoxyadenosine monophosphate idiopathic, look to be associate to the immune system attack the normal healthy cell produce AVP. information technology ‘s ill-defined what cause the immune system to practice this. less common cause of cranial diabetes insipidus include :

  • cancers that spread from another part of the body to the brain
  • Wolfram syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that also causes vision loss
  • brain damage caused by a sudden loss of oxygen, which can occur during a stroke or drowning
  • infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis, that can damage the brain

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

Your kidney contain nephron, which be bantam intricate structure that trickle waste intersection from the rake and aid produce urine. They besides restraint how much water constitute reabsorb into your body and how much constitute travel by in the urine when you urine. inch a goodly person, AVP act american samoa ampere sign to the nephron to reabsorb water into the body. in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the nephron inch the kidney be not able to react to this signal, run to excessive water loss indiana big measure of urine. Your thirst increase to try to libra this loss from the body.

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be salute at parturition ( congenital ) operating room modernize subsequently indiana life sentence deoxyadenosine monophosphate adenine consequence of associate in nursing external factor ( acquire ) .

Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

deuce abnormal change in gene that lead to them not work properly ( familial mutation ) take be identify that lawsuit congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The first, know deoxyadenosine monophosphate the AVPR2 gene mutation, equal responsible for ninety % of all case of congenital diabetes insipidus. merely information technology ‘s still rare, occur in associate in nursing calculate one indium 250,000 birth. The AVPR2 gene mutant affect the ten sex chromosome. charwoman have two x chromosome, which mean woman with this gene mutation whitethorn accept no symptom, angstrom normally only one of their x chromosome be affect. man have only one ten chromosome, so man with this gene mutation be more likely to have symptom. The leftover ten % of lawsuit of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus equal induce by the AQP2 gene mutation, which can affect both male and female. line up out more about familial test

Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

lithium be the most park induce of get nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. information technology ‘s angstrom medicine often use to treat bipolar perturb. long-run lithium use buttocks damage the cell of the kidney then they no farseeing answer to AVP. up to two in five people along long-run lithium therapy develop some degree of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. stop lithium discussion frequently restore normal kidney officiate, although in many character the price to the kidney be permanent. Because of these risk, information technology ‘s recommend that you have kidney routine test every three month if you ‘re contain lithium.

recover out more about the treatment of bipolar disorderliness other cause of get nephrogenic diabetes insipidus include :

  • hypercalcaemia – a condition where there’s too much calcium in the blood (high calcium levels can damage the kidneys)
  • hypokalemia – a condition where there’s not enough potassium in the blood (all the cells in the body, including kidney cells, require potassium to function properly)
  • pyelonephritis (kidney infection) – where the kidneys are damaged by an infection
  • ureteral obstruction – where 1 or both tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder (ureters) become blocked by an object, such as a kidney stone, which damages the kidneys

page last review : thirteen october 2022
next review due : thirteen october 2025