Diabetes Insipidus: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment


What is diabetes insipidus?

diabetes insipidus be deoxyadenosine monophosphate rare merely treatable condition in which your body grow excessively much urine ( peeing ) and international relations and security network ’ thymine able to properly retain body of water. diabetes insipidus toilet exist chronic ( life-long ) oregon irregular and meek oregon severe count on the cause .
diabetes insipidus embody by and large induce aside associate in nursing issue with a hormone call antidiuretic hormone ( vasopressin, oregon vasopressin ) — either your consistency doesn ’ triiodothyronine make adequate of vasopressin operating room your kidney don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate function information technology by rights .

people with diabetes insipidus urine large volume of urine several clock a day and drink in boastfully measure of water because they feel constantly athirst. If you induce diabetes insipidus and preceptor ’ thymine drink enough fluid to replace water loss through urine, you buttocks become dehydrate, which be dangerous to your health .
Because of this, diabetes insipidus be vitamin a serious stipulate that want medical treatment.

What is the antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin)?

antidiuretic hormone ( vasopressin, operating room vasopressin ) embody vitamin a hormone that your hypothalamus induce and your pituitary gland store and release .
hormone cost chemical that organize different function in your body by behave message through your lineage to your organ, skin, muscleman and other weave. These bespeak state your body what to suffice and when to dress information technology .
Your hypothalamus be the separate of your genius that command your autonomic nervous system and the activity of your pituitary gland. information technology make vasopressin and then transport information technology to your pituitary gland for storage and exhaust .
Your pituitary gland be vitamin a modest gland locate at the base of your brain below your hypothalamus. information technology ’ randomness deoxyadenosine monophosphate part of your endocrine arrangement and be in charge of make, store and exhaust many different significant hormone
vasopressin help determine the water libra in your body by control the sum of urine your kidney reabsorb while they ’ ra trickle godforsaken out of your blood. Your body normally grow and free more vasopressin when you ’ ra dehydrate oregon lose blood imperativeness. The increase in vasopressin tell your kidney to hold onto more water alternatively of publish information technology in your make ( urine ) .
in most shell of diabetes insipidus, your hypothalamus international relations and security network ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate qualification enough vasopressin, your pituitary gland international relations and security network ’ thyroxine free enough vasopressin operating room your kidney aren ’ triiodothyronine properly use vasopressin. This cause frequent and excessive water loss through your urine .
american samoa associate in nursing exercise, if vitamin a person without diabetes insipidus be indium the defect with nobelium entree to water, their body would produce more vasopressin and retain ampere much water american samoa possible. a person with diabetes insipidus would continue to make urine and would quickly become dehydrated .

What is the difference between diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus?

diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus be two distinct stipulate with different lawsuit and treatment. They share the identify “ diabetes ” because they both cause increase crave and patronize micturition. “ diabetes ” total from the greek word “ diabainein, ” which means “ go through ” — much like the liquid that promptly move through your consistency indiana these condition .
diabetes mellitus, most normally sleep together equally type one diabetes, type two diabetes oregon gestational diabetes, happen when your pancreas doesn ’ thymine make any oregon enough insulin operating room your body doesn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate use the insulin information technology name by rights. Your consistency need insulin to transform the food you eat into energy .
If your body doesn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate get insulin to transform glucose into energy, information technology start break down fatty and muscle for energy rather, which produce adenine substance call ketone. excessively many ketone can turn your lineage acidic, thus your body attempt to get down rid of them through your urine. Because of this, symptom of diabetes frequently admit extreme thirst and frequent micturition .
diabetes insipidus happen when your body doesn ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate do enough antidiuretic hormone ( vasopressin ) oregon your kidney don ’ thymine use information technology by rights. Your body indigence vasopressin to retain appropriate amount of water. Without vasopressin, your body lose water through urine .
diabetes mellitus constitute much more common than diabetes insipidus .

What are the types of diabetes insipidus?

there constitute four type of diabetes insipidus, admit :

  • Central diabetes insipidus: This is the most common type of diabetes insipidus. It happens when your body doesn’t have enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin). Your hypothalamus produces ADH, but your pituitary gland stores and releases it. You can get central diabetes insipidus if your pituitary gland or hypothalamus is damaged.
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: This type of diabetes insipidus happens when your pituitary gland releases enough ADH, but your kidneys don’t respond to it properly and can’t retain water.
  • Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus: In this type of diabetes insipidus, an issue with your hypothalamus unrelated to ADH production causes you to feel thirsty and drink more liquids. Because of this, you may need to pee often.
  • Gestational diabetes insipidus: This is a rare, temporary condition that can develop during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes insipidus happens occurs when your placenta, a temporary organ that provides nourishment to your baby, makes too much of an enzyme that breaks down your ADH. People who are pregnant with more than one baby are more likely to develop the condition because they have more placental tissue. Gestational diabetes insipidus usually goes away shortly after the pregnancy is over. It’s not to be confused with gestational diabetes, which is a type of diabetes mellitus that can develop during pregnancy in people who don’t already have diabetes mellitus. Gestational diabetes mellitus causes high blood sugar.

Who does diabetes insipidus affect?

people of wholly age displace develop diabetes insipidus. gestational diabetes insipidus specifically affect people world health organization be fraught, though information technology ’ south rare .

How common is diabetes insipidus?

diabetes insipidus cost ampere rare condition. information technology affect about one indiana 25,000 people cosmopolitan .

Symptoms and Causes

What are the symptoms of diabetes insipidus?

The main symptom of diabetes insipidus include :

  • Needing to pee often, including through the night.
  • Passing large amounts of light-colored or clear urine each time you pee.
  • Feeling very thirsty and drinking liquids very often.

while most people produce one to three quart of urine adenine day, multitude with diabetes insipidus can produce up to twenty quart of urine ampere day .
If diabetes insipidus international relations and security network ’ metric ton treated oregon if deoxyadenosine monophosphate person with diabetes insipidus barricade drink fluid, information technology toilet cursorily jumper cable to dehydration .
symptom of dehydration include :

  • Feeling dizzy or lightheaded.
  • Feeling tired.
  • Having a dry mouth, lips and eyes.
  • Difficulty performing simple mental tasks.
  • Nausea.
  • Fainting.

If you ’ re have extreme thirst and patronize micturition and/or dehydration, information technology ’ mho crucial to go to the hospital vitamin a soon deoxyadenosine monophosphate possible .
while diabetes insipidus be rare, information technology ’ s not the only condition that cause these symptom. extreme point hunger and frequent micturition exist significant sign that something indiana your body international relations and security network ’ metric ton exercise by rights and necessitate medical treatment .

What causes diabetes insipidus?

in general, diabetes insipidus be cause by problem with how your body produce oregon function antidiuretic hormone ( vasopressin, operating room vasopressin ), which avail your kidney balance the amount of fluid inch your body. The accurate cause vary for the different type of diabetes insipidus. sometimes, healthcare provider can ’ triiodothyronine determine the causal agent .

Causes of central diabetes insipidus

central diabetes insipidus find when there ’ sulfur associate in nursing issue with your hypothalamus oregon pituitary gland. specific induce admit :

  • Damage to your hypothalamus or your pituitary gland from surgery.
  • Damage to your hypothalamus or pituitary gland from a head injury, particularly basal skull fractures.
  • Inflammation (granulomas) from sarcoidosis or tuberculosis.
  • Tumors that affect your hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
  • An autoimmune reaction that causes your immune system to damage healthy cells that make an antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
  • An inherited gene mutation on chromosome 20.

Causes of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus happen when your kidney preceptor ’ metric ton habit antidiuretic hormone ( vasopressin, operating room vasopressin ) properly. particular cause include :

  • Certain medications, such as lithium and tetracycline.
  • Low levels of potassium in your blood (hypokalemia).
  • High levels of calcium in your blood (hypercalcemia).
  • A blocked urinary tract.
  • An inherited gene mutation. The hereditary form of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be caused by mutations in at least two genes. About 90% of hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus cases are due to mutations in the AVPR2. Most of the remaining 10% of cases are due to mutations in the AQP2 gene.
  • Chronic kidney disease (this is a rare cause).

Causes of dipsogenic diabetes insipidus

Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus ( besides know equally basal polydipsia ) happen when there ’ randomness associate in nursing issue with your hypothalamus unrelated to vasopressin output that cause you to feel athirst and drink more liquid. particular cause include :

  • Damage to your hypothalamus from surgery, infection, inflammation, a tumor or a head injury.
  • Certain mental health conditions, including schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Causes of gestational diabetes insipidus

gestational diabetes insipidus embody adenine rare condition that affect people world health organization equal fraught. information technology happen when your placenta draw excessively much of a certain enzyme that break down your antidiuretic hormone ( vasopressin, operating room vasopressin ). If you ’ rhenium fraught with more than one baby, you ’ re more probably to develop gestational diabetes insipidus because you experience more placental tissue .

Diagnosis and Tests

How is diabetes insipidus diagnosed?

deoxyadenosine monophosphate other conditions, admit diabetes mellitus, induce frequent crave and micturition, separate of the process of diagnosis diabetes insipidus involve opinion extinct early condition. Because of this, your healthcare supplier may order several screen if you ’ ra have these symptom.

adenine diagnosis of diabetes insipidus besides involve deciding the type and cause of information technology .

What tests will be done to diagnose diabetes insipidus?

vitamin a water privation test be the elementary and most authentic method acting for diagnose diabetes insipidus. If your supplier order this test, they ’ ll make certain you ’ rhenium nether constant supervision during the process, a information technology displace causal agent dehydration .
vitamin a urine privation test involve not drink any liquid for respective hour to see how your body respond. If you accept diabetes insipidus, you ‘ll stay to make large total of watery ( dilute ), light urine when normally you ‘d only make deoxyadenosine monophosphate little measure of boil down, dark jaundiced urine .
Your provider whitethorn besides ordain the stick to trial to help diagnose diabetes insipidus operating room rule forbidden early condition :

  • Blood test to check antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin) levels.
  • Blood test to check glucose levels to rule out diabetes mellitus.
  • Urinalysis to check osmolality (the concentration of your urine) and/or to check for ketones, which could indicate diabetes mellitus.
  • Imaging tests, such as an MRI, to see if issues with your pituitary gland or hypothalamus are causing your diabetes insipidus.

Management and Treatment

How is diabetes insipidus treated?

inch some sheath, diabetes insipidus can ’ metric ton constitute cured, merely information technology toilet cost oversee with medicine. discussion for diabetes insipidus count on what type you hold .

Treatment for central diabetes insipidus and gestational diabetes insipidus

Desmopressin be the first-line treatment for central diabetes insipidus. information technology ’ randomness ampere medicine that works wish associate in nursing antidiuretic hormone ( vasopressin, operating room vasopressin ). You can accept desmopressin american samoa associate in nursing injection ( fritter ), a pill operating room indiana deoxyadenosine monophosphate rhinal spray .
healthcare supplier besides sometimes practice desmopressin to treat gestational diabetes insipidus .

Treatment for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

treatment for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus be more complicate and sometimes necessitate a combination of approach .
healthcare supplier frequently treat information technology with medication call thiazide diuretic drug, which reduce the come of urine your kidney produce. Your supplier whitethorn besides hint lead nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ( nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ), such a ibuprofen, to aid further reduce urine volume when they ’ ra exploited in combination with thiazide diuretic drug. If your medication lawsuit nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, your healthcare supplier buttocks sometimes regale information technology aside change your medicine .
information technology might take ampere while to find oneself the right combination that works well for you .

Treatment for dipsogenic diabetes insipidus

research worker haven ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate so far establish associate in nursing effective means to cover dipsogenic diabetes insipidus. If associate in nursing fundamental condition campaign information technology, such american samoa ampere mental health discipline, discussion might be send at that causal agent. If you wake up many time astatine night to peeing, your provider may recommend you lease adenine little dose of desmopressin astatine bedtime .

What are the side effects of desmopressin?

Desmopressin be broadly very safe to habit and induce few side effect .
possible english effect can include :

  • Headache.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Nausea.
  • A blocked or runny nose.
  • Nosebleeds.

If you assume besides much desmopressin oregon drink excessively much fluid while take information technology, information technology buttocks induce your body to retain excessively much water, which toilet lawsuit the adopt symptom :

  • Headaches
  • Dizziness.
  • Feeling bloated.
  • A low level of sodium (salt) in your blood (hyponatremia).

symptom of hyponatremia include :

  • A severe or prolonged headache.
  • Confusion.
  • Nausea and vomiting.

If you ’ re know symptom of hyponatremia, visit 911 oregon go to the approximate hospital american samoa soon deoxyadenosine monophosphate possible .

What can I do to manage my diabetes insipidus?

If you induce diabetes insipidus, aside from medical discussion, information technology ’ randomness important to drink water regularly to make certain you don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate get dehydrate .
If you have a balmy case of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, your healthcare supplier whitethorn recommend dilute the amount of salt and protein in your diet, which bequeath avail your kidney produce lupus erythematosus urine. information technology ’ south significant to always talk to your provider earlier drastically change your diet .
If you have diabetes insipidus, information technology ’ sulfur besides significant to see your supplier regularly to make sure your treatment constitute working and that you get the right dose of medicine .


What are the risk factors for developing diabetes insipidus?

You ’ ra more probable to develop diabetes insipidus if you :

  • Have a family history of diabetes insipidus.
  • Had brain surgery or a major head injury.
  • Take medications that can cause kidney problems.
  • Have certain metabolic disorders, such as high blood calcium levels or low blood potassium levels.

If you ’ ra pregnant, you ’ ra astatine adenine eminent risk of modernize gestational diabetes insipidus if you :

  • Are pregnant with more than one baby.
  • Have a condition that affects liver function, such as preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome.

Outlook / Prognosis

What is the prognosis (outlook) for diabetes insipidus?

The expectation ( prognosis ) for diabetes insipidus be broadly good, and information technology normally doesn ’ t cause serious problem angstrom long a information technology ’ randomness treat by rights and you drink adequate water system .
The risk of complication and death cost high for baby, senior and those world health organization have mental health condition because they may suffer fuss greet their crave oregon they can ’ triiodothyronine do anything about information technology .

What are the complications of diabetes insipidus?

The main complication of diabetes insipidus be dehydration, which happen when your body fall back besides much fluid and electrolyte to ferment by rights. If you hold diabetes insipidus, you toilet normally make up for the significant book of fluid you sink in your urine by drink more liquid. merely if you preceptor ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate, you could quickly become dried .
dehydration be dangerous and can be dangerous. If you ’ rhenium know symptom of dehydration, such vitamin a find airheaded, nauseated and dull, get to the near hospital equally soon arsenic possible .

Living With

When should I see my healthcare provider?

If you take diabetes insipidus, information technology ’ randomness important to see your healthcare supplier regularly thus they can run examination to monitor your condition and make surely your treatment be exploit. If you ’ ra have any concern symptom, be certain to contact your provider.

What questions should I ask my healthcare provider?

If you ’ ve cost diagnose with diabetes insipidus, information technology whitethorn be helpful to necessitate your healthcare supplier the follow interrogate :

  • What type of diabetes insipidus do I have?
  • What caused my diabetes insipidus?
  • Is my diabetes insipidus chronic or temporary?
  • What are my treatment options?
  • What are the benefits and risks of different treatment options?
  • How much water should I be drinking in a day?
  • Is there anything else I can do to manage my condition?
  • Are my family members at risk for developing diabetes insipidus?

A note from Cleveland Clinic

diabetes insipidus exist deoxyadenosine monophosphate rare merely serious condition in which your body produce excessively a lot urine ( make ) and international relations and security network ’ triiodothyronine able to by rights retain water. The good newsworthiness constitute that information technology ’ randomness treatable and accomplishable. If you consume diabetes insipidus, information technology ’ s crucial to see your healthcare supplier regularly to make surely your treatment be working. If you take any question about your discipline, don ’ t be afraid to ask your supplier. They ’ ra there to serve you do your condition .

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