Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA): Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Table of Contents
Signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis
The most common early symptom of DKA embody the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following be other sign of the zodiac and symptom of DKA :
- malaise, generalize helplessness, and fatigability
nausea and vomit ; whitethorn be associate with diffuse abdominal pain, decrease appetite, and anorexia
- rapid weight loss indiana patient newly diagnose with type one diabetes
- history of failure to comply with insulin therapy operating room miss insulin injection due to vomit operating room psychological rationality operating room history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump
- decrease perspiration
- change awareness ( eg, mild disorientation, confusion ) ; frank coma be rare merely whitethorn happen when the condition be neglect oregon with severe dehydration/acidosis
sign and symptom of DKA consort with potential intercurrent infection be arsenic watch :
- thorax pain
see clinical display for more detail .
General findings in diabetic ketoacidosis
on examination, general find oneself of DKA whitethorn include the take after :
- ill appearance
- dry skin
- tug breathing
- dry mucous membrane
- decrease skin turgor
- decrease reflex
- feature acetone ( ketotic ) breath olfactory property
in addition, measure affected role for sign of potential intercurrent illness such ampere michigan, UTI, pneumonia, and perinephric abscess. research for sign of infection be mandatary in all subject .
initial and repeat lab study for patient with DKA include the follow :
- serum glucose level
- serum electrolyte level ( eg, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, morning star )
- bicarbonate horizontal surface
- amylase and lipase floor
- urine dipstick
- ketone level
- serum operating room capillary beta-hydroxybutyrate level
- ABG measurement
- complete blood count ( complete blood count )
- bun and creatinine floor
- urine and blood culture if intercurrent infection be suspect
- electrocardiogram ( electrocardiogram ; oregon telemetry inch affected role with comorbidities )
note that high serum glucose level may lead to dilutional hyponatremia ; high triglyceride level may conduct to factitious abject glucose floor ; and high level of ketone body whitethorn lead to factitious elevation of creatinine level .
Radiologic survey that whitethorn be helpful indium patient with DKA include the stick to :
- chest radiography – To rule out pneumonic infection such vitamin a pneumonia
- head calculate imaging ( connecticut ) scan – To detect early cerebral edema ; use low doorsill indiana child with DKA and altered genial condition
- lead magnetic resonance imagination ( magnetic resonance imaging ) – To detect early cerebral edema ( order merely if altered awareness equal present [ one ] )
bash not delay administration of hypertonic saline solution oregon mannitol in those pediatric case where cerebral edema be suspected, deoxyadenosine monophosphate many exchange whitethorn equal see late on oral sex imaging .
learn Workup for more detail .
treatment of ketoacidosis should bearing for the adopt :
- fluid resuscitation
- reversal of the acidosis and ketonemia
- decrease in the plasma glucose concentration to normal
- refilling of electrolyte and bulk personnel casualty
- identification the implicit in induce
regular and analogue human insulin [ two ] be use for discipline of hyperglycemia, unless bovine operating room pork insulin embody the entirely available insulin .
medicine exploited in the management of DKA include the comply :
- Rapid-acting insulin ( eg, insulin aspart, insulin glulisine, insulin lispro )
- Short-acting insulin ( eg, regular insulin )
- electrolyte append ( eg, potassium chloride )
alkalinize agent ( eg, sodium bicarbonate )
Read more : Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)
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category : Diabetes